A well-known instructional design model is The Dick and Carey or The Systems Approach Model.
This model is systematic in nature. It is a procedural system including ten major process components (nine basic steps in an iterative cycle and a culminating evaluation of the effectiveness of the instruction).
Dick and Carey made a significant contribution to the instructional design field by championing a systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts. The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction.
According to Dick and Carey, “Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes”.
The components of the Systems Approach Model, also known as the Dick and Carey Model, are as follows.
- Assess needs to identify instructional goal(s) – to identify what it is the learners are expected to be able to do at the end of the instruction
- Conduct instructional analysis – to determine a step-by-step of what learners are doing when they are performing the goal; to determine what skills and knowledge are required
- Analyze learners and contexts – to identify learners’ present skills, preferences and attitude as well as the characteristics of the instructional setting; the useful information about the target population includes entry behaviors, prior knowledge of the topic area, attitudes toward content and potential delivery systems, academic motivation, attitudes toward the organization
- Write performance objectives – to specify what it is the learners will be able to do with the statements of the skills to be learned, the conditions, and the criteria
- Develop assessment instruments – to develop a criteria-referenced assessment consistent with the performance objectives
- Develop instructional strategy – to develop strategies in pre-instructional activities (motivation, objectives and entry behavior), presentation of information (instructional sequence, information, examples), learner’s participation (practice and feedback), testing (pretest and posttest) and follow-through activities(remediation, enrichment, memorization and transfer)
- Develop and select instruction – to use the instructional strategies to produce the instruction
- Design and conduct formative evaluation – to collect data that are used to identify how to improve the instruction
- Revise Instruction – to use the data from the formative evaluation to examine the validity of the instructional analysis, learner and context analysis, performance objectives, assessment instruments, instructional strategies, and instruction.
- Design and conduct summative evaluation – to measure the value and success of the instruction.