The ARCI Matrix for Structuring Roles

Teamwork is often seen as an effective way to accomplish work goals. And there is no doubt that when teams work well together the results can be impressive. Unfortunately, the opposite is true and all too common: Teams that fail to work well can also fail to deliver the desired results.

When several people work on a project it is easy to assume that someone else is taking care of a particular detail or assignment. It is also easy to point fingers and assign blame when one of those jobs is done poorly or not done at all.

While there’s a wide range of factors that contribute to a team’s failure to accomplish its desired goals, one of the more common ones is a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities. That is where the ARCI matrix comes in.

What is the ARCI Matrix?

The ARCI Matrix is a responsibility assignment matrix system that brings structure and clarity to assigning the roles people play within a team. It is a simple grid system that you can use to clarify people’s responsibilities and ensure that everything the team needs to do is taken care of.

It is a system that brings structure and clarity to assigning the roles people play within a team. It is a simple grid system that you can use to clarify people’s responsibilities and ensure that everything the team needs to do is taken care of.  Sounds complicated, how do I use it? Using the ARCI system, you list every task, milestone and decision, then clarify who is responsible, who is accountable, and where appropriate, who needs to be consulted or informed. The acronym ARCI stands for:

  • Accountable – this person is the “owner” of the work. He or she must sign off or approve when the task, objective or decision is complete. This person must make sure that responsibilities are assigned in the matrix for all related activities. There is only one person accountable, which means that “the buck stops there.”
  • Responsible – these people are the “doers” of the work. They must complete the task or objective or make the decision. Several people can be jointly responsible.
  • Consulted – these are the people who need to give input before the work can be done and signed-off on. These people are “in the loop” and active participants.
  • Informed – these people need to be kept “in the picture.” They need updates on progress or decision, but they do not need to be formally consulted, nor do they contribute directly to the task or decision.

Benefits of Using ARCI

  • Many factors can contribute to the underperformance of a team, but unless responsibilities and accountabilities are clear, there can be a significant risk that problems will arise.
  • With complex, time-sensitive or mission-critical projects, or in situations where people are ducking responsibility, it is often worth taking the time to think through the roles that you and your team members must play in every task that your team undertakes. Without this clarity, you will most-likely find gaps, duplication and confusion. Teamwork will be frustrating, inefficient and you are less likely to deliver good results. In these situations, the delegation of tasks and other responsibilities can be too important to leave to chance.
  • One of the biggest challenges of team working (particularly in areas where there’s little margin for error) is to make sure everything is done completely and well. By taking a structured approach to role assignment using the ARCI Matrix, you can plot and check who is responsible and accountable for each team task, and also check the integrity of each person’s roles. In so doing, you can minimize the risk of gaps, overlaps and confusions and so have a greater chance of running a highly effective and efficient team.

Guidelines for Creating an ARCI Matrix

Outcome of the ARCI process is a two-dimensional matrix, with functions or tasks on one axis and participants or roles on the other. Sample matrix might look like this:

Sample ARCI Matrix
Sample ARCI Matrix

There are certain guidelines that should be followed when ARCI matrix is created. Tasks or functions have to be named clearly and non-generic (not like “administrative work”) , using action verbs (for example, “monitor network performance”).

When you fill the table, you should keep in mind following rules:

  • The golden rule of the ARCI model is that there should be only one A. Two or more As will create confusion.
  • More than two Rs in the same row means duplication of work. In that case try to split the task into smaller pieces.
  • No Rs in a row means a gap, because nobody will be responsible and work will not be done. This can also mean that task is not needed.
  • If possible, place most of Rs and As at the leftmost side of the matrix. This improves overall clarity of the table.
  • Every row must contain one A and one R. However, same participant can be both responsible and accountable at the same time.
  • If there is a role with no Rs or As, reconsider if role is needed.

Setting SMART Objectives

Setting effective objective to guide your team and organisation is very important for leader to get right. Badly formulated objectives will steer an organisation in the wrong direction. Here are some tips to help you set up SMART objectives effectively:

  1. Sort out the difference between objectives and aims, goals and targets before you start. Aims and goals relate to your aspirations, objectives are your battle-plan. Set as many objectives as you need for success.
  2. SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timely.
  3. Don’t try to use that order M-A/R-S-T is often the best way to write objectives.
  4. Measurable is the most important consideration. You will know that you’ve achieved your objective, because here is the evidence. I will know too! Make sure you state how you will record your success.
  5. Achievable is linked to measurable. Usually, there’s no point in starting a job you know you can’t finish, or one where you can’t tell if/when you’ve finished it. How can I decide if it’s achievable?
    • You know it’s measurable
    • Others have done it successfully (before you, or somewhere else)
    • It’s theoretically possible (i.e., clearly not ‘not achievable’)
    • You have the necessary resources, or at least a realistic chance of getting them
    • You’ve assessed the limitations
  6. If it’s achievable, it may not be realistic. If it isn’t realistic, it’s not achievable.You need to know:
    • Who’s going to do it?
    • Do they have (or can they get) the skills to do a good job?
    • Where’s the money coming from?
    • Who carries the can?

    Realistic is about human resources/time/money/opportunity.

  7. The main reason an objective is achievable but not realistic is that it is not a high priority. Often something else needs to be done first. If so, set up two (or more) objectives in priority order.
  8. The devil is in the specific detail. You will know your objective is specific enough if:
    • Everyone who’s involved knows that it includes them specifically
    • Everyone involved can understand it
    • Your objective is free from jargon
    • You have defined all your terms
    • You have used only appropriate language
  9. Timely means setting deadlines. You must include one, otherwise your objective isn’t measurable. But your deadlines must be realistic, or the task isn’t achievable. T must be M, and R, and S without these your objective can’t be top-priority.
  10. It is worth this effort! You’ll know you’ve done your job well, and so will others.

What Are SMART Objectives?

Nothing happens until we plan, and good plans have crystal clear goals and objectives. Setting them correctly goes a long way in helping in achieving them. Before we dive into the principles of SMART objectives, we need to be aware of the difference between goals and objectives. Goals relate to our aspirations, purpose and vision. For example, I have a goal of becoming financially independent, this is a goal. Objectives are the battle plan, the stepping stones on the path towards the achievement of my goal. Therefore, a goal may have one or many objective that I would need to fulfill in order to achieve my goal. For example, to become financially independent I would need to 1) get out of debt, 2) improve my saving and 3) start a business.

The most well known method for setting objectives is the SMART way. The SMART approach is well understood amongst managers, but often poorly practiced. SMART refers to the acronym that describes the key characteristics of meaningful objectives, which are Specific (concrete, detailed, well defined), Measureable (numbers, quantity, comparison), Achievable (feasible, actionable), Realistic (considering resources) and Time-Bound (a defined time line). Lets look at these characteristics in more detail.

SMART objective then are the stepping stones to the achievement of our goals…


Specific means that the objective is concrete, detailed, focused and well defined. Specific means that it’s results and action-orientated. Objective must be straightforwards and emphasize action and the required outcome. Objectives need to be straightforward and to communicate what you would like to see happen. To help set specific objectives it helps to ask:

  • WHAT am I going to do? These are best written using strong, action verbs such as conduct, develop, build, plan, execute, etc. This helps your objective to be action-orientated and focused on what’s most important.
  • WHY is this important for me to do?
  • WHO is going to do what? Who else need to be involved?
  • WHEN do I want this to be complete?
  • HOW am I going to do this?

Diagnostic Questions

  • What exactly are we going to do, and why?
  • What strategies will be used?
  • Is the objective well understood?
  • Is the objective described with action verbs?
  • Is it clear who is involved?
  • Is it clear where this will happen?
  • Is it clear what needs to happen?
  • Is the outcome clear?
  • Will this objective lead to the desired results?


If the objective is measurable, it means that the measurement source is identified and we are able to track the actions as we progress towards the objective. Measurement is the standard used for comparison. For example, what “financially independent” means to me, may be totally different compared to what is means for you. As it’s so often said “if you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it“. It’s important to have measures that will encourage and motivate you on the way as you see the change occurring. This may also require interim measures. Measurements go a long way to help us identify when we have achieved our objective, or how far we are from achieving it.

Diagnostic Questions

  • How will I know that the change has occurred?
  • Can these measurements be obtained?


Objectives need to be achievable. If the objective is too far in the future, you will find it difficult to keep yourself motivated and to strive to attain it. Objectives, unlike your aspirations and visions, need to be achievable to keep you inspired. I do feel that objectives need to stretch you, but not so far that you become frustrated and lose motivation.

Diagnostic Questions

  • Can we get it done in the proposed timeframe?
  • Do I understand the limitations and constraints?
  • Can we do this with the resources we have?
  • Has anyone else done this successfully?
  • Is this possible?


Objectives that are achievable may not necessarily be realistic. However, realistic does not mean easy. Realistic means that you have the resources to get it done. The achievement of an objective requires resources, such as, skills, money, equipment, etc. to the task required to achieve the objective. Whilst keeping objectives realistic, ensure that they stretch you. Most objectives are achievable but, may require a change in your priorities to make them happen.

Diagnostic Questions

  • Do you have the resources available to achieve this objective?
  • Do I need to revisit priorities in my life to make this happen?
  • Is it possible to achieve this objective?


Time-bound means setting a deadline for achievement of the objective. Deadlines need to be both achievable and realistic. If you don’t set a deadline, you will reduce the motivation and urgency required to execute the tasks. A timeframe creates the necessary urgency and prompts action.

Diagnostic Questions

  • When will this objective be accomplished?
  • Is there a stated deadline?

Basic Principles of E-Learning

The term “e-learning” refers to a very broad range of educational opportunities within the electronic world – from “live” classrooms online to self-paced study through a website or a computer program, to courses delivered via email. The various delivery methods serve different purposes for the learner, and learners may do better using a particular method over another. For example, someone who has a high level of self-discipline, coupled with a strong desire to learn may do well in a self-paced study program. Other learners may do better with live interaction through chat groups, message boards, or regular instructor communication to maintain motivation and provide a “real world” feel to e-learning.

Since the term e-Learning is used inconsistently, let’s start with a basic definition. For the purposes of
this discussion, e-Learning is content and instructional methods delivered on a computer (whether on CD-ROM, the Internet, or an intranet), and designed to build knowledge and skills related to individual or organizational goals.

Unlike classroom training, e-Learning is very visible. While much of the classroom experience is packaged in the instructor, and in fact varies from class to class, you can easily see and hear all elements of e-Learning. Everything from screen color to content accuracy to the types of practices is readily available for scrutiny.

With the advancement of technology and increasing availability of high-speed Internet access, it is now possible to earn a degree entirely online or for businesses to provide company-wide training through e-learning. Here are some of the basic questions to ask yourself when designing an e-learning course.

Keep the User Interface Simple

Obviously, e-learning requires an interface between the learner and the technology to facilitate learning. The usability of any e learning initiative can be determined by the ease with which learners can learn their chosen subject without being lost in the confusion of how to use the technology. This is determined by the interface design of the e learning process. The usability and interface design of an e-learning course, therefore, can make or break its success.

Make Learning Interactive

Because e-learning often takes place alone rather than in a classroom, learners will do best if there is some type of interaction. Not only does this make the instruction more interesting, it also promotes learning. Interaction can occur many ways, such as through scheduled chats or interactive lessons. If participants are asked to simply read or listen and regurgitate, the learning experience will not be as successful. Furthermore, because e-learning provides unique interactive experiences, quality programs will take advantage of as many of these opportunities as possible.

When you are in a conversation with someone you are expected to listen and respond in a meaningful
way. This requires you to invest attention in what the person is saying, to process it and to generate a
meaningful response. A similar model seems to apply when learners see the e-learning as an engagement
with a social partner – even an inanimate one.

Provide Feedback to the Learner

Learners need to know how they are progressing, and regular feedback informs participants on both their areas of weakness and areas of strength. This allows participants to focus on those areas that need improvement or practice. Again, the delivery method of feedback can vary greatly, from self-testing at regular intervals or direct feedback from an instructor. The key is that feedback needs to be ongoing and consistent. Limiting feedback to a final test or review does not provide the learner with opportunities to individualize learning throughout the program.

Make it Learner-Based

The very nature of e-learning is that it is flexible and is geared toward the needs of the learner – when it is done well, that is. E-learning opportunities need to be flexible in that the learner can access and use the technology at his or her convenience. While interaction with the instructor or other participants may need to be scheduled, the majority of the learning experience should be available at any time.

The technology used also needs to be appropriate for the targeted audience and not too difficult to use. If learners are spending more time trying to learn the delivery method rather that the subject, it is not time well spent. If possible, find a program that allows users to review a demonstration of the delivery prior to signing up for the course.

Learning is based on engagement of the learner with the content of the instruction. Even though learners
know that computers are inanimate, the use of conversational language in the program seems to stimulate very ingrained unconscious social conventions that lead to deeper learning.

Use Audio and Graphics To Engage the Learner

A human being’s working memory has two sub-storage areas — one for visual information and one for phonetic information. One way to stretch the capacity of working memory is to utilize both of these storage

By graphics, I refer to a variety of illustrations including still graphics such as screenshots, line drawings, charts and photographs, and motion graphics such as animation and video. Research has shown that graphics can improve learning. The trick is to use illustrations that are congruent with the instructional message. Images added for entertainment or dramatic can actually depress the learning process!

Audio should be used in situations where overload is likely. For example, if you are watching an animated
demonstration of maybe five or six steps to use a software application, you need to focus your visual resources on the animation. If you have to read text and at the same time watch the animation, overload is
more likely than when you can hear the animation being narrated.

This does not mean that text should never be used. Any words that are needed as reference should be presented in text. Providing a possibility for the learner to print handouts (or read them online) for later reference is a great bonus.

The ADDIE Model of Instructional Design

The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. This acronym stands for the 5 phases contained in the model:

  • Analyze – analyze learner characteristics, task to be learned, etc.
  • Design – develop learning objectives, choose an instructional approach
  • Develop – create instructional or training materials
  • Implement – deliver or distribute the instructional materials
  • Evaluate – make sure the materials achieved the desired goals

Each of these steps has a particular outcome that lead to the next step in the ADDIE model of instructional design. Let us have a look at each of the steps in detail.

Analysis Phase

In the analysis phase, instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learner’s existing knowledge and skills are identified. Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase:

  • Who is the audience and their characteristics?
  • Identify the new behavioral outcome?
  • What types of learning constraints exist?
  • What are the delivery options?
  • What are the online pedagogical considerations?
  • What is the timeline for project completion?

The three most important points to be analyzed before beginning with the designing of a course or a training program are the business goals that are to be achieved, the material that needs to be taught, and the current capabilities of the target audience (learner). In this phase, the project’s needs are defined and the ways to achieve it are also decided. This phase also considers the time line for the project, the learning environment, and the delivery options that are available. One of the adages that could fit the situation is “Analyze totally and design flawlessly”. The training needs analysis is therefore the most essential stage in the life cycle of a project, be it an instructor-led training or a computer-based course or a self-directed one, a proper needs analysis should be performed to ensure minimization of time loss and resources loss during the designing and development of the course. The analysis phase terminates when all the collected data is put together in a cohesive format to describe the learning objectives for the entire course. The objectives should be clear, precise and measurable. Vague objectives could pose problems during the subsequent stages of the ADDIE model. Once the learning objectives have been defined, one can move to the design phase.

Design Phase

The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project’s goals. Specific means each element of the instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details.

This is again a very important stage in the project cycle. During this phase, the training specialist chalks out an instructional strategy for the particular course that would outline the course structure and other integral components like the strategies for learning, delivery, assessments and the like. Once the instructional strategy is planned, the course format is selected and then the Instructional Design document is scripted. When an instructional designer chalks out a strategy for the course, he decides regarding the chunking of the source content (course material), relevant and best presentation methods for the material and assessment strategies to measure the success of the learner after completing the course. Each content chunk and assessment must map to at least one of the learning objectives of the course. Then he needs to select and finalize a delivery option for the course depending on the business requirements, type of content and many other similar factors. Once this is done, he needs to script the Instructional Design Document. This is a high-level overview of the entire course plan. It provides an insight into the overall learning approach, the instructional strategies adopted, course activities and assessments. This document is reviewed by the client, changes made if required and finalized by the client and the training specialist.

These are the steps used for the design phase:

  • Documentation of the project’s instructional, visual and technical design strategy
  • Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
  • Create storyboards
  • Design the user interface and user experience
  • Prototype creation
  • Apply visual design (graphic design)

Development Phase

The development phase is where the developers create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase. Programmers work to develop and/or integrate technologies. Testers perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and revised according to any feedback given.

In this phase, a prototype for the entire course is developed and then approved by the client before the entire course is developed. A prototype gives an idea as regards to how and what the final course would look like. It may comprise a few template pages or even detailed step-by-step storyboards. The client goes through the prototype and provides his/her feedback on the same, based on which the course would be developed. Instructional designers script the storyboards, graphic designers develop the course with the integrators collating all the developed pages to develop a complete course and then it the product goes through a cycle of reviews like the ID review, language review etc. Then the client goes through the course as an expert and not as a learner to ensure that the course is accurate and complete in all respects. This can be regarded as a quality assurance step in the development cycle. The next in line is the pilot test where the learners take the course for the first time. This can be regarded as the beta version of the course delivery. Post the pilot test, the client and training specialist agree on a set of changes that need to be incorporated in the course before the actual launch of the course.

Implementation Phase

During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators’ training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners include training them on new tools (software or hardware), student registration.

This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that the books, hands on equipment, tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place, and that the learning application or Web site is functional.

It is essential to ensure that the course is delivered effectively to the learners. The study material and the course are delivered to the target audience. Basically, this phase encompasses a great deal of project management and logistics issues. This also covers the course curriculum, learning outcome, method of delivery and testing methodology. The project manager needs to ensure that the learning procedure is functional.

Evaluation Phase

The evaluation phase can be either formative or summative. Formative evaluation refers to the evaluation that is carried out across all the stages of the ADDIE model. Summative evaluation refers to the tests that have been designed and are undertaken to provide feedback about the course at the end of the course. It is the final checkpoint for the developed course. It is checked to what degree the project has been able to match and meet up to its goals and objectives. If the learners have been benefited by taking the course, if they have achieved the learning objectives by the end of the course, if the business goals associated with the course have been met are some of the few points of consideration during the evaluation stage in the project life cycle. This helps to measure the efficacy of the developed course and also identify the scope and opportunities to improve the performance of the learners after taking the course.

The Dick and Carey / Systems Approach Model of Instructional Design

A well-known instructional design model is The Dick and Carey or The Systems Approach Model.

This model is systematic in nature. It is a procedural system including ten major process components (nine basic steps in an iterative cycle and a culminating evaluation of the effectiveness of the instruction).

Dick and Carey made a significant contribution to the instructional design field by championing a systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts. The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction.

According to Dick and Carey, “Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes”.

The components of the Systems Approach Model, also known as the Dick and Carey Model, are as follows.

  • Assess needs to identify instructional goal(s) – to identify what it is the learners are expected to be able to do at the end of the instruction
  • Conduct instructional analysis – to determine a step-by-step of what learners are doing when they are performing the goal; to determine what skills and knowledge are required
  • Analyze learners and contexts – to identify learners’ present skills, preferences and attitude as well as the characteristics of the instructional setting; the useful information about the target population includes entry behaviors, prior knowledge of the topic area, attitudes toward content and potential delivery systems, academic motivation, attitudes toward the organization
  • Write performance objectives – to specify what it is the learners will be able to do with the statements of the skills to be learned, the conditions, and the criteria
  • Develop assessment instruments – to develop a criteria-referenced assessment consistent with the performance objectives
  • Develop instructional strategy – to develop strategies in pre-instructional activities (motivation, objectives and entry behavior), presentation of information (instructional sequence, information, examples), learner’s participation (practice and feedback), testing (pretest and posttest) and follow-through activities(remediation, enrichment, memorization and transfer)
  • Develop and select instruction – to use the instructional strategies to produce the instruction
  • Design and conduct formative evaluation – to collect data that are used to identify how to improve the instruction
  • Revise Instruction – to use the data from the formative evaluation to examine the validity of the instructional analysis, learner and context analysis, performance objectives, assessment instruments, instructional strategies, and instruction.
  • Design and conduct summative evaluation – to measure the value and success of the instruction.
Components of the Dick and Carey Model
Components of the Dick and Carey Model

Instructional Design for E-Learning


Today, technology has invaded almost all aspects of our life, for better or for worse. Though technology’s role in our life is debatable to some extent, its happy union with education is definitely something to cheer for. The enhancement of education through proper application of technology is termed as e-learning. Having come of age over the years with drastic leapfrogs in technology, e-learning has today evolved into a great learning platform that is radically different from that of the conventional learning techniques, conceivably in a better way.

Just as there are numerous approaches to conventional teaching, e-learning too has varied approaches to it. Instead of dwelling upon the various approaches to e-learning, I will discuss here one of the most popular one. Widely known as Instructional Systems Design (ISD), it is also known by other names such as Instructional Systems Design & Development (ISDD), the Systems Approach to Training (SAT), or just Instructional Design (ID). Starting with the assessment of a student’s expectations from the courseware, it leads the student through a step by step guide involving the design and development of the training material, and finally allowing the instructor to gauge the efficacy of the program through student assessment.


A combination of some of the most popular definitions of instructional design or systematic design for e-learning gives a crystal clear idea about what it exactly is, and an insight into its core process of learning. At the nucleus of an instructional design approach is the importance it gives to learning instead of technology. Learning requirements and objectives are first analysed, and in conjunction with these needs, a delivery system is developed. The instructional design methodology was first put to use in World War II and became immensely popular in the years thereafter. It found place in corporate training, military training, textbook authoring, and web/computer based learning. A systematic design for e learning entails continuous assessment and response. Instructional Design is based on theoretical and practical research in the areas of cognition, educational psychology, and problem solving. All in all, instructional design is essentially a learning framework that simply organises learning resources to enhance the learning process to reach defined goals.

Advantages of Systematic Approach to E-learning

Unlike a classroom setting for learning, a systematic approach to e-learning benefits the overall training process in more ways than one.

  • It allows individuals other than the instructors, such as other learners, or students wishing to take up the course, to view and weigh up the content, discussions, interactions, etc.
  • It makes objective assessment of e learning quality possible.
  • It guarantees the examination of vital theories through apposite presentation and pertinent learning.
  • It makes e learning process more transparent, thereby bequeathing quality upon it.
  • It immensely helps the students of online programs through good content presentation and interactive sessions.
  • It renders distance learning more effective due to its interactive characteristic and transparency compared to conventional distance learning programs.
  • It provides students with the liberty of picking the instructional framework instead of the instructional framework governing student’s choice of course.
  • It builds a comfortable link between pedagogy and technology, thereby allowing a change in the plan of instruction depending upon the student response, which cannot be achieved by technology alone.
  • It to e learning is enhanced by well organized subject content and well thought out strategies for teaching.
  • It helps in blending the material offered by different instructors and different courseware.
  • It begins and ends with the learner and his experience.

The development of instructional material is a time consuming process and, hence, a major concern. Systematic approach to e learning accelerates the development process to come up with the most effective way of content presentation, and a structure to navigate through the courseware.

Various Models of Systematic Approach to E-learning

A model of any process is a representation of standard occurrences, thus restricting its blind replication in a real life situation. The review of various models of the systematic approach only reiterates the fact that different ones are effective in designing different courses, ranging from a science course to a people management course.

ADDIE – This is an ellipsis of Analyze, Design, Development, Implement, and Evaluate. One of the most popular models of instructional design, it is frequently used by instructors for academic courses.

Dick and Carey Model – It is based on the concept of breaking instructions into modules. The instruction material targets the skills and knowledge that is intended to be taught.

Minimalism – Developed by J.M. Carroll, this model is useful for computer based learning. It emphasizes the importance of meaningful and self contained learning activities, execution of realistic projects by students, error recognition and recovery of training material and a tangible link between training and actual system.

Algo Heuristic Model – It is based on the assumption that all pedagogical activities can be categorized into algorithmic, semi algorithmic, heuristic or semi heuristic. Once a cognitive activity can be put under a certain head, its specific systems act as the foundation of the systematic approach.

Robert Gagne’s Model – This model is considered to be the pioneer, in which many other models find their genesis. It subscribes to the belief that events and categories of learning form a framework that can be used to account the learning conditions.

Epathic Model – A five step design model, it includes – observation, capturing data, reflection and analysis, brainstorming for solutions, and developing prototypes.

Rapid Prototyping Model – Here, learners, and subject matter experts constantly communicate with instructional designers and prototypes in a cyclic manner.


E-learning is plagued with a number of difficulties including high dropout rates, learner resistance, poor learner performance, etc. These glitches can be taken care of through the systematic approach. Its various other benefits make it a unanimous choice for organisations and institutions alike.